Space Resources 101

Written By: Bailey Burns 

In response to a prompt for a Space Resources class:


In the near future we may be using the material resources found in space. What material resources of space would you argue will be used and in what sequence? For what purposes and by whom?

When looking at the future of space resources and their use, it is first important to consider their user. With the end goal of a sustainable lunar human presences, the most important material resources in space to be utilized are H2O, iron and other metals, and helium-3 in that order.

The first step in leaving Earth is to foster a short-term sustainable environment. When considering this, water offers sustainment to both human life and economic life in a way that minimizes the payload for initial growth. Conveniently, there is a significant amount of water on the moon’s surface which is also the best place for the first human presences outside Earth. Water will provide drinking water and oxygen, both highly crucial to human survival, as well as offers a source of radiation protection and machine cooling. The abundance of water will help manage many risks seen in space travel while lightening the load for human travel. It also can be broken down into hydrogen and oxygen, the two major components of rocket fuel used today. Production of rocket fuel once again decreases the weight for a return mission and also can be sold as a primary driver for a cislunar economy for both government agencies and commercial companies. Water will not only help support human life, but will engage the growth of a new economy, making it the most important first space resource to consider.

The next important step in human civilization is infrastructure. Material that is familiar to Earth’s already proven infrastructure includes iron, nickel, and other rare earth metals. A case can be made for any type of metal, but iron has been highly researched, is abundant, and has helpful properties. Iron only accounts for about 10% of the resources on the moon. This means it may be easier to turn to Near Earth Objects, specifically asteroids, for iron extraction using the Mond process. Iron found in NEO has the potential to be 99.999% pure of imperfections, meaning it can have properties similar to stainless steel. This makes iron an excellent material resource to aid in the initial infrastructure of human settlement. Iron and other metals that can be mined near the moon will allow for further development and plays a crucial secondary role in reaching human presences in space.

Finally, helium-3 is a highly abundant and unique material that can be found on the lunar surface. Since this is a stable isotope, it is of great interest in fusion for nuclear power. Having helium-3 as a primary energy source not only aids the lunar human presence but can also promote cleaner energy on Earth to sustain existing human presences. China claims there is enough helium-3 on the moon (roughly 1,100,000 metric tonnes) to solve energy issues on Earth for the next 10,000 years. Similar to water, this an example of a material resource that is highly valuable for both In Situ and Return to Earth. Building an economy is key to building human space presences. Helium-3, while valuable in this process, is a tertiary step because of the energy need of Earth’s people currently. Earth is not ready for nuclear power on a social level and will need to see the success on the moon before it will be welcomed for Earth utilization.

There is an unfathomable amount of resources and order of utilization that can be seen in the future of space resources. Outlined here is the material resources that will satisfy the growing interest in human space presences by providing basic human needs, building infrastructure, and optimizing energy in a way that will grow a space economy while providing economic benefit on Earth.


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